All Posts (102)

The Universe isn't random

I took this picture the other week when it snowed where I lived. I had been out for a walk in the fresh new snow and I was taking lots of pictures, I remembered that every snowflake is supposed to be different in look, so there must be billions of variations in the ones in this picture or instance.

So, is the universe random also? I don't think it is, I think it has purpose.

All the things in this picture are for a purpose, they are not random, this whole picture suggests a scene of things built on things and things interconnected to things for some greater purpose.

Here is a star map of the Milky Way which is interesting in that it appears to be a circular mass of objects all rotating in the same way.

Replicated almost in this crop circle from Wiltshire, England

a message from outside our planet?

Which reminds me of...

Something else that is based on circularity... The Medicine wheel

Like our planet and others around us, it goes on a repeating path, our planet goes around in a circular orbit each year, there must be some purpose for this.

If we go back to a star map... We know from our observations that the planets move in orbits, so this does suggest 'order' and 'purpose', otherwise if they had just 'occurred' then by rights if we apply randomness, they should over the last 4.6 billion years have probably destroyed each other by collision.

The fact that this mass of bodies moves around lessens the chance of damage, if they are all moving and one way, they are statistically in so many different places in that circular orbit pattern, that this lessens the possibility of being destroyed, if they just stayed where they are.

The circular path perhaps gives planets gravity, more so if they revolve like Earth does, thus keeping things on the surfaces, a purpose that must exist if life is to exist on them. We know of many planets that have gravity like ours, this cannot be random.

(In one of the stories in this book in chapter 5, an American Indian Doctor encounters an entity that tells him that there are other planets like ours that have humans on. Again, this does point to organisation and not randomness.) 

The fact that planets are still here and relatively undamaged must point to some form of order.

It is the same on this planet, things are interconnected and we observe cause and effect in action, one action causes effect on another. This isn't necessarily random, because random is a unique situation and usually not repeated, whereas organised processes do repeat as they have order.

To be organised means that there is something setting all this to work, many people might think the universe is random but it is not.

Things occur and are connected for a reason. The reason is what the American Indian people call the Great Mystery, it is something that so far is beyond our working out!

Have a great 2018!


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Can we wash away negative energy?

Have many lost the way to commune with the universe's energy?

I read recently that much of our genetic material is unused, so why is it there? Likely because our ancestors from off the planet had it and when they created us, it was in place but unused.

Which may make you ask again, why it is there? Perhaps it is for a perceived future human that may need reconnecting to a higher state, the wiring is all in place and just needs genetic connection.

This book is one of the best I have read on the UFO encounters subject 

The Anunnaki who have connections to the Middle East, were highly advanced humanoids, from which part of our species was created. Some of their capabilities were retained and some were 'not connected' - leaving the door open for the future when we were created for enhancement.

We are still 'connected' in some ways but in others we are disconnected. 

So I was thinking about psychic energy vibes, we impart them to things and I wondered if we do the same with clothes.

Do we just feel better because we have washed our clothes or because we have washed away the vibes that are trapped in the fibres? It is like cleaning up a house and taking away things that you no longer need, it makes you feel better, are the vibes being absorbed or reflected from these objects?

We do impart our energy to things, psychometry is the reading of vibes which some people are gifted at.

Washing away the bad vibes is a good thing. 

So this unconnected wiring we have may be the means by which we achieve advanced communication in a more advanced version of ourselves.

If we only rely on a small amount of network, then maybe that is all we can use with our currently wired brain, had we the capabilities of the Anunnaki in this respect, we would be literally superhuman.

Perhaps this dormant network we have could be used as a massive array of information and awareness network, otherwise why build it in? I know that those who are enlightened in spiritual matters are able to develop this out, perhaps they are anomalies that have extra power by some sort of mutation? 

It is a bit like SETI that looks for signals of other life in space, the problem with that is the means used to send the message may have changed, look how we have moved from analogue to digital communication in the last 20 years, we may be getting messages from other civilisations coming to us but we can't read them or capture them because they are beyond our frequency and our equipment's means of interpreting things.

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Our lives do not stand still!

I was thinking the other day that over the last 20 plus years, I have come to acquire much new knowledge. When I think back thirty years, I know so much more than then, but this new knowledge is more than just acquisition, it is the quality and relevance that I find amazing.

I often used to think about some people I knew of that maybe had a hobby that they did all their lives or worked in job all their lives and it seemed interesting to analyse their outlook. My life has been the opposite, although I have about 4 main hobbies, the rest of my own life has been about change and changing situations.

It all goes back to the question why am I here? Aged 12, I looked at this planet and wondered at it, it seemed like some sort of unfinished project.

At one job interview I had it was observed I had moved jobs a lot, that was partly due to the economic situation, a few years before I had read of the Star Seed phenomena and recognised a lot in that that applied to me.

But I still couldn't work out what I was doing here. 

Most other people I encounter have their lives all sewn up, they have a house, a relationship, career, what is normality, but I observed I seemed to be drifting and could not seem to put roots down anywhere.

But that was the whole point, I wasn't supposed to.

I realised recently what it was all about and that was change, I was the change agent in things, not by choice but by some sort of design that was beyond my control. Looking back now it seems that because we are all unique unlike robots who do not have spontaneity, that certain people could affect situations, either positively or for the worse. 

Nothing ever stands still, everything is in some constant state of change, whether that is decay, accumulation, growth, decline, it goes round in a circular path, just as the Red people have observed.

Looking back over the last 20 plus years, the things I now look at are all connected, they are all pertaining to our future and the big disclosure that will surely come soon. It seems to me that things lead on to other things and my varied existence has been to learn and observe and then to help others with this combined knowledge. 

I had no real idea of what I wanted to do as a job after leaving school, particularly after one of my options did not materialise, so I was always seeking the purpose of what to do. Writing has been one thing I developed over the years and with my new knowledge gathered in the last quarter century, things are falling into place.

Perhaps my true purpose of education and helping others is being achieved through this jumbled life I seem to have led!

One path I was on was in research on a book project about the history of humans and robots, this led to seeing some work on Lakota wisdom and knowledge, it was from that interest I looked deeper into the Lakota culture and the pieces are falling into place. 

However, I do encounter many people who lead very boring lives, they have no real interests and even though they may have a university education, they don't really know anything or seem to be able to grasp even simple concepts it seems, so would I swap with them? 

No. My slightly jumbled up life is far more interesting and in the next 20 years I know I have a lot of work to do which I hope will provide enlightenment for many.

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Meeting a Wolf spirit

I came across the Lakota man that wrote this the other week

I found the person who wrote this quote on a Friends of the Lakota facebook page last week and I mentioned my Wolf sighting, he told me what he thought it meant.

A Wolf sighting in the country,not uncommon you might say, except where I encountered my Wolf, they had been hunted to extinction some three hundred plus years ago. So, was I mistaken? Was it a Dog? Was the fact I was six years old come into it? I don't believe so, in fact I can still see what I saw then. And the man in the space suit at the same location about a month later. Clear as then.

I have seen many Indian writings that say we have lived many lives, having had my own 'out of body' experience, I can believe that there is no death, only a change of worlds. But back to my story.

So this is what I saw side on - it shouldn't have been there -

I know what I saw and it was no dog

My story of my encounter begins in 1972, I was aged 6 and I was out for a walk with my grandparents in some woodlands in a place called Wisley in Surrey, England, not the Surrey near the Lakota lands in Dakota. Mind you, perhaps it was an accident I was sent to the wrong Surrey? but I digress.

The roads then weren't so busy and the M25 Motorway wasn't there then!

On the map above we had travelled down Wisley Lane and had parked up at the edge of the common and went for a walk in the woods. I had been to this location a few times before and a number of times later but only on two occasions did I have interesting encounters at this place.

This is similar to the scene at Wisley Woods where I saw the Wolf

I used to like to explore, but not far from my grandparents and suddenly in front of me, walking straight across in front of me was a Grey Wolf. At this time, I was not fond of dogs, having been frightened by one when I was about 3.

But the strange thing was that I just stood and watched the Wolf walk on across my path, I realised it seemed strange that it had not noticed me, but at the same time I did not feel scared of it, even with my fear of dogs then.

The Lakota man who I told the story of this vision said it was likely a Wolf spirit, I wondered some years later whether it had been some sort of a timeshift and the Wolf and I had crossed paths as dimensions crossed. Knowing now that I have psychic gifts, I think the Wolf spirit explanation is likely true.

The Wolf was what I would call a normal size and perhaps young or female. That's the first one.

I told my grandparents what I had seen and they said I was mistaken, there were no Wolves, but it must have been a dog. But they didn't seem to remember that I had a fear if dogs then and let it go. But I know that was no dog.

Old picture of an Indian and his Wolf friend. A great picture.

My second sighting at this location is a bit more other worldly, you might think I was making an association with my sighting, when you see the next picture, but I know what I saw.

My jacket patch from when I was about 5 years old -

I grew up in the 'Space race' decades of the 60's and 70's

So, about a month later in the same area of woods, I had my what I call 'Spaceman' encounter.

Silver Birch trees grow around this part of the woods

Again, I had gone off to explore and in the picture above, the first tree prominent in the left of the picture with the hanging foliage on the right of it is just like the tree where the 'Spaceman' went.

I only saw this momentarily, but what I saw was like the Astronaut in the patch above, from the back, in plain sight, then walk through the hanging Silver Birch foliage and was gone from sight.

So what did I see? Well a biped, like us I guess, but wearing the ribbed like suit as in my patch, but I can remember the fabric of the suit was like a rusty canvas material, I didn't see a helmet I recall as the figure walked straight through the foliage and was gone from sight.

I never mentioned this sighting to my grandparents, as my Wolf sighting had been dismissed as wrong. I didn't feel any fear and I certainly can recall this sight now, the fleeting brown suited shape going through the foliage. It wasn't a human I am sure of that.

Maybe that is why I have frequent contact with Star People who turn up around where I live now with their silver craft.

My next encounter with star people was 26 years later, when I saw a group of three glowing human like figures about eight to ten feet tall standing beside an electricity pylon and then disappeared from view into thin air.

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Buzzard saved

A young Buzzard stuck in the workshop, had to open the big doors so it could fly out,

Stuck behind glass!

It got out and sat on the hedge, waited for me and then flew away, a good result.

What was really weird was that a Raven like bird was flying over the field where this took place but it made a really loud wing noise, I've never heard anything like that before and it looked bigger than any Raven I'd seen in flight. Maybe it was something from the animal spirit realm? Got me thinking of the Thunderbird legend.

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Take one Eagle feather

I created this artwork called Grandfather Sky using an Eagle feather, a sky picture from last September and 4 famous Chiefs, Red Cloud, Sitting Bull, Chief Joseph and American Horse. I've had the idea for a while, it was just getting round to doing it!  

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Transition and awakening

Change is coming to many people - it has been slowly working for a few years

I follow a couple of really good horoscope tellers on youtube and one thing they both refer to is about meeting people we may have known in previous lives.

I have noticed a strange phenomena, one thing is that I do have some psychic ability, I do happen to predict things, as thoughts come to me, usually a few days later something happens. I also know even before a person speaks if I will like them or not.

One strange aspect I encounter is I come across what I call 'signature' people. These are people who are almost carbon copies (not in looks but in composition) of people I have known before, some good some not. I almost know who the toxic people are very quickly as a result.

This going away slightly from what I set out to say, but I thought you might find it interesting.

However, the subject of this article has been touched on by both tellers, that of a transition.

I noticed that in the last three years or so my whole life has changed, not only in my outlook but the psychic side has grown, I recall seeing a bit of wisdom that there was no death, just a change of worlds and that got me interested in what happens when our spirit leaves our body.

One facet of a thing called Project Avatar is that in the end we may all live as ethereal beings completely and not have a physical body, but in the mk 3 or so we could be a spirit contained in an animatronic humanoid body. So we could in theory exist physically as long as we have the moving parts replaced. This came out of a book I was researching to write on future humans and robotics.

This transition is not just happening to me it seems, but a concerted pattern across the planet is going on, it is predicted a big change will occur, perhaps those who live outside our planet will return to this one?

Common sense seems to be telling us we are running out of planet yet we are not modifying our behaviour and re-evaluating what we are doing, we are looking at places like Mars to colonise, yet funnily enough, I read that the Hopi people were approached in 1976 when the proposed Viking satellite was scheduled to gather data on Mars, they had information clay tablets, likely given by the Anunnaki, perhaps a sort of selection process is happening and those 'in tune' with things are being silently called?

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Hand destiny

The 'M' symbol- do you have it?

I came across this interesting picture on a Facebook post on one of the American Indian groups I belong to.

It stated that the 'M' shape derived from lines on the hand denoted you were American Indian, I wonder if anyone has come across this before?

It mostly occurs on the right hand only it said, but it can also on the left hand too.

On some cats an 'M' symbol is visible over the top of the nose.

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The Cleoptra mystery

Cleopatra Powhatan - related to Pocahontas, so how did she get her name?

Recently I found this amazing picture which described the subject as Cleopatra Powhatan, in my recent research on Atlantis, I was intrigued by the connections to ancient Sumer which have shown that in theory this should not be true.

Ancient Egyptian Cleopatra statue

In this ancient Egyptian Cleopatra piece, note that the headdress is comprised of a feather design, and also the striking features have some similarity to Cleopatra Powhatan.

An early Pharaoh travelled to Ireland and died there, which is why his sarcophagus at Abydos in Egypt remains empty, so one could then go on and presume that further travel was possible and going back to Atlantis, that Southern America was indeed possible.

Cleopatra Powhatan lived in the 1600's it is said, which got me to wonder how this photograph was possible, unless the dates were incorrectly quoted.

I wonder if anyone has any ideas?

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So what is the future?

So the question is what next?

This is the situation that likely faces the American Indian peoples as much as those outside of that group. 

It is a question of how they see their place in the world, either on the reservations or outside of those places.

Their biggest strength I would say to ensure their future success is their culture and heritage.

The options they face in a changed world are how they will exist in that new world. It is a question of living with modern things like technology but not forgetting their culture.

The world in general is a troubled place and it is now ready for some positive leadership that is not afraid to point out the failings it finds itself facing.

As a species, we need a new way forward, the time for consumerism is overdue for review, we only have one planet and we are living beyond the means of it. They say that 'money talks' but it seems that only consumers listen. When money talks, principles seem to go out of the window. Along with commonsense.

The only people with the answers are the American Indian people, they lived the better life way back centuries ago. There is an old saying about cutting your cloth, we are now in danger of having too ambitious plans of our metaphorical clothing demands and as a result not having enough cloth to meet that design.

I have pointed out to some people the premise, that did they know of a culture that had no crime, no taxes, no money, where the people were safe whatever their age, no violence, no addiction ....? the list goes on.

(When I say those tenets existed, people are amazed. More so when I tell them who the people who enjoyed this life were.)

It is all their current people aspire to and fail to achieve, inspite of their material wealth and consumer habits.

The future is that there is only one future. We have no real option but to do something about our current consumption or we face the obvious consequences.   

The situation demands leadership from those with the obvious skills - the American Indian people.

We have had enough notifications from the American Indian people that things must change, change must now occur. 


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Bi-location - has it happened to you?

Mel Riley - Medicine man and former Remote viewer

So, what is Bi-location?

Many people have had this experience, it is literally where realities come together that should not in 'scientific' terms. It happened to Mel Riley, who I came to know of through a television program on the remote viewing program that the CIA operated.

Mel Riley lived in a rural area of Wisconsin and had frequent contact with a local Winnebago tribe, where he learned a lot about their culture first hand from their people. In his earlier days he had been aware of 'Star visitors' it almost seems to fit the pattern that he would then go on to show he had psychic abilities, which he did by some margin!

When Mel was young he envisioned an encampment of American Indians, in their own time. There are many stories of people that come across historic things, one very interesting story I came across was a pilot in Scotland in the 1930's who became lost and flew over an airfield, the aeroplanes looked to him 'old' about WW1 vintage and bi-planes, he came down low and went off again.

Some years later, the pilot came across a log in the squadron history of that base in which it was recorded that the people on the ground on a date that fitted had seen a 'futuristic aeroplane' and the description was his, about 20 years out of place. His aeroplane.

Mel Riley has learned that remote viewing is not a new skill but that the American Indian people used it before, for situations such as getting inside the head of an animal and painting the picture you want it to see. I believe that there were chiefs such as Tecumseh, Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse to name but three, who possessed the facility of 'future sight' and of 'remote sight' of places and things - they predicted things like cars, railways, aeroplanes and WW2 which were certainly beyond information that was known at the time. Their genetic make-up and culture is likely the reason why this pervaded in their race.

I think that this goes along the theory that those peoples having retained a connection to nature, the energies are not disrupted or corrupted by living in modern, concrete environments where the natural frequencies can't permeate from the ground or perhaps are disrupted by the invisible radio waves permeating cities carrying the internet and phone signals around the people (and likely through them).

I think that is why cities are places that attract bad situations because the natural radiation of nature from the soil can't get through the solid layer of concrete or road material and is diluted further with 'data noise'. It is damaged and leads to people being damaged.

I was reading some of the Lakota stories that had been written down, many of them spoke of encounters with shapeshifting entities that were one moment animal and in another could assume human form. There are many things that science cannot explain and these 'crossing over' situations and remote viewing seem to be up there in that league.

If you have ever had an out of body experience, you will know that your consciousness allows you to see and hear even though you are not in your Earth body. I think that is why Chief Seattle said 'there is no death, only a change of worlds.' What I think that means is that your sprit entity can leave your body and see and hear all and is not destroyed by mortal death, it just moves on elsewhere.

The Hopi said they came to this planet in an ethereal form I believe, that is also said to be an option that some other races from outside here can choose to exist as. There is a thing called Project Avatar that in its Stage 5 would mean the existence of the self in this ethereal form. That is full of possibilities.


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The Red man before Atlantis?

In my last article, I looked at the Atlantis question in relation to the Red People, I was having problems with getting the images on with that article, so I have some here to share that show connections.

The above picture is of two stone relief carvings called 'stellae' which have been found in two very distant locations, but are about identical. They are of an Anunnaki god, note the Eagle feathers on the headdress, the Hopi mention 'Enki the Eagle' Enki being an Anunnaki deity.

The above stellae are from Ecuador in South America where Enki from Atlantis ( and from Sumer previously) ventured too and took the Red people from Atlantis with him. 

 Above is a Mayan temple carving of an ancient astronaut, these are common in a place and time that they were made when evidence of technology as we know it today was not known, surely?

This above Mayan image shows a 'Stone Temple Pilot' of Ancient Astronaut illustration surely? He is working a 'modern' type of computer with powerlead and keyboard / console and looking at a Monitor screen. How can 'science' explain this?

Another South American artefact is this stone carving depicting Dinosaurs as we know them from artist's impressions based on reconstructed skeletons, yet some of these carvings show humans 'hunting' some of these creatures, there are examples of human and dinosaur as we know them footprints side by side.

If we go back to the early Sumerian / Atlantis era, we find recorded evidence on Clay tablets of early humans created by the Anunnaki from their own genetic material and the terraformed humanoid base Homo Erectus,

'The first successfully test-tube-conceived and surrogate-carried Nibiran/Erectus Earthling'- quoted

Adamu the first Human created was quoted as - 'Adamu learned to speak. His skin was “smooth, dark red,” his hair, black.' Also I have found information that the Anunnaki when they created their planned species built in to the program that they would remove the gene for facial hair growth, now is that not a key factor?

We can go right back to early quoted origins - 'Adapa, born around 200,000 BCE, Enki’s son with an Earthling woman descended from Adamu.' If we recall, this can claim descendency from the Pleiades as many tribes do because Enki's mother was said to have origins in that star area. 

Here we see a Hopi petroglyph which seems to show a star map and representations of taller creatures than we are and with different shapes, these could be like the ones on this stone from Illinois:-

The 'Ant friends' stone - Anu-nakki' means Ant friends in the Hopi language -  many Hopi words and phrases are common and close or similar to the ancient Sumerian language, now we can prove the link because we can see the Clay tablet information and statuary from both Sumer and Ecuador coinciding.

A Hopi open air Petroglyph, note the Kachina Sun God face engraved here.

The Kachina Blue Star Sun deity still used on Hopi jewellery and artefacts.

This fantastic sterling silver cuff celebrating the Feathered God - perhaps a representation of 'Enki the Eagle' God who carried the Hopi to where they reside now? (From Atlantis)

Blue Star Kachina with winged feather costume - the symbology to the Hopi past is obvious to those who know the cultural significance.

A partial remainder of a Clay tablet describing the Anunnaki goddess Innana who was in Sumeria - so how this got to Oklahoma otherwise would be a mystery and defy logical explanation, unless you factor in someone brought it from Sumer or Atlantis with them.

The fact that many tribes have knowledge given to them on Clay tablets is no coincidence, when you factor in the Sumer angle there can be little dispute that they are part of the story. The tribes relied on passing on history by word of mouth, historians tend to like physical evidence and in the clay tablets, that word of mouth history is parallel and fits.

The symbol of the feather is important today as it ever was

This Eagle that came to Standing Rock is a symbol and something more than just 'nature' - a messenger. Have you ever tried to touch a wild Eagle? This one allowed those to touch it, surely this shows this was a modern miracle if you like, equal to anything from the days of 2000 years ago.

The four colours of the medicine wheel also signify the four colours of the people. Whatever we do here, we do to each other, ultimately. No one wins unless everyone wins.

I hope you have found these connections of interest!  

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Atlantis the island of the Red people

Atlantis – the Red Island and the Red People

We've heard of the legendary island of Atlantis, a legend disputed by many but believed by some – yet evidence exists to prove it was there.We have to go back to the Plato the ancient Greek philosopher, who wrote about Atlantis, this information he used came from ancient Sumerian Clay tablets, those of you who read my recent article will know that Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce carried one of these Clay tablets in his medicine bag.

There have been other Sumerian Clay tablets unearthed in America – the question is how did they get there? The answer is intriguing and linked to the American Indian people, some of whom did come from Atlantis - its a rather intricate story, but perhaps here for the first time, we can show the connection.

This also explains why the American Indian people have enhanced spiritual and psychic abilities. And why extra terrestrial life is 'denied' yet it is the very reason we are here and why NASA sought information from the Hopi people before it set the Voyager satellite to survey Mars in 1976. The reason is that Mars was once colonised before its civilisation was destroyed by war.

The evidence for Atlantis is scant, but some is there geologically, yet even here, some experts refuse to believe it. Let us go back to Plato the Greek Philosopher of ancient Greece, who wrote a work called 'Timaeus,' which described Atlantis effectively.In his sister work 'Critias,' he mentions a valuable ore second only to Gold in value, named 'Orichalcum' which was mined on Atlantis. In 2015, ingots of this metal were found in an ancient shipwreck off Sicily. So that's one possible physical link, the other is people.

We have to go back millions of years to start with human history. The question has to be why are we different from everything else on the planet? If we are supposed to have come out of the trees 8 million years ago and started walking upright as some believe, then why have Primates we are supposed to have evolved from, not continued their similar progress to be like us? Is there a missing link species between us and Primates? No, there never was. We are not the first like us to be here.

'Scientists' persist with the 'Out of Africa' theory, when evidence clearly shows alternatives.

The stark truth is that we are an 'intervention species.' So, what about the biblical story of creation? Well, that is true in fact but the real story has been lost in translation, we have to refer to the Sumerian sources. The American Indian people knew this creation story to be true, it may have come from the same source - the Anunnaki, who created life in Sumer, which is now Iraq thousands of years ago.

The definable recorded source of human creation was that humans came 'from the Clay' essentially from the Earth. This is a literal explanation, it meant 'from the planet,' not from Clay itself. Although the American Indians believe that four attempts to fashion a human were made in which four colours came about, white, red, yellow and black, coincidentally the same colours of the medicine wheel. They could have been told from the 'literal' Clay for simplicity. It could be a matter of translation. The Anunnaki are the link. Who were they?

Our human race is not the first human incarnation on this planet. We are the third. Did we evolve from primates? Our closest Earth link is the Chimpanzee but at only 92% genetically similar, this is way off beam, why? Humans & Chimpanzees can't interbreed. The Chimpanzee anthropology is all wrong compared to Humans, we can't have evolved from them because the nuts and bolts of it are that the Chimpanzee is engineered differently, not for walking upright as we do permanently, for a start. However, there are other closer primates.

A now extinct primate called Homo Erectus seems to have come from nowhere, walked upright and was believed to be an ancestor of ours yet no 'missing link' exists. What of Neanderthal man? An experiment that did not survive. They were likely created by Terraformers who millions of years earlier looked to create a species on Earth in their own image, using genetic parts from existing creatures to build a hybrid that could survive on the planet.

So let us look at the tribes and their origins and their link to the Anunnaki. To start with, the Anunnaki are from off this planet, their home planet is said to be Nibiru, we can find much evidence in the clay tablets found in Iraq which was known as Sumer a long time ago.These tablets and pictorial representations, show ancient visitations and the establishment of perhaps the first advanced society with laws, commerce, manufacturing and agriculture, first recorded at least 11000bc.The Anunnaki came to Earth to look for Gold. You would think an advanced race would bring a robot fleet of workers with them to extract materials on a 24/7/52 basis - continually, yet they brought with them people from their situation – essentially human looking creatures to do the work.Nibiru was an oddity, it orbited the Sun in a 3600 year orbit, yet did so against the orbit of the other planets we are surrounded by. As such, it collided with Tiamat and broke away what became our planet, hence they knew that Gold existed on their planet and when it ran out, they knew to look elsewhere. Here.

Nibiru was disruptive and its close proximity orbit to Earth on occasions, led to the shift of the magnetic poles and the end of the Dinosaurs.The mission to Earth to mine the Gold was led by Enlil and Enki. Enki was a scientist and geneticist. After some time, the workers tired of their labour and revolted, leaving Enki to create a race of workers.

Enki's mother was from the Pleiades a star constellation - the name Pleiades is also recorded as Paal- Ea -Daus – 'The place of our Lord Father, the Creator' 'Daus, close to Deus, the word for God. See how close this is sounding to the biblical texts, which were drawn from the Sumerian Clay tablets. It is near the Taurus constellation the Lakota people are known as 'Tatanka Oyate' the Buffalo people, the Bull and the Buffalo are not dissimilar. Another point is how did the Lakota people arrive at a horological system of 12 creatures like the Zodiac we use? They did not use time as we do.

Let us look at the tribes, The Mayan & Hunbatz spoke of the 7 Pleidean brothers who would return, the Hopi consider themselves direct Pleidean descendants, as do the Cherokee and Lakota, the Navajo call the Pleiades the Sparkling suns, the Iroquois an offshoot of the Cherokee pray to the Pleiades for happiness. So how does this connect to Atlantis?Through Sumeria.Enki's situation was to have to help create a new species which became us, using the basic Homo Erectus primate – 'from the Earth' to help. This served a purpose in that it was acclimatised to the planet, the Anunnaki were to an extent, but not completely.

To this end they planted a resource of plants which were effectively food supplements to allow them not to age or deteriorate as we do. This was at Edin, or Eden as it is referred to now. A water supply there also existed, this resource was solely the preserve of the Anunnaki and was out of bounds to the people they created, indeed, the garden was monitored by a robotic sentry with 'a flaming sword' a laser weapon, the story is illustrated on a cylinder seal and recorded on Clay tablets in the story of the 'Ordeal of Gilgamesh,' where Gilgamesh, a half human, half Anunnaki (demi-God) sought immortality and tried to get into the Garden of Edin to eat the special fruits and drink the water. Where Adam and Eve were supposedly banished from.

Enki's first creation was a male called Adamu – this meant literally 'from the Clay' which should have been taken 'from the Earth - the planet.' The result of a genetic modification of a Homo Erectus genetic base material and Annunaki genetic material. This continued until seven pairs of males and females were constructed. Then the breeding started.The American Indian peoples call themselves the descendants of Enki Enki is regarded as the benefactor of mankind by the Hopi, they have a legend of Enki the Eagle, so how did this coincidence happen? It wasn't a coincidence, like the Clay tablets, it has a logical path. They also had Clay tablets – it is no coincidence it shows a factual connection.

Enki in Sumeria was aware that the great flood on Earth would happen, so he did not want to sacrifice his creation of us to the deluge. It was through this that he prepared for migration. He did indeed create life and preserved it. This 'day of judgement was true, it related to the Anunnaki who were forbidden from breeding with Earth residents.

Yet this continued and as such when the impending flood was discussed by the Anunnaki, Anu, their leader declared that the Anunnaki should abandon Earth and leave the created to their fate, Enki argued against this and helped with the saving and restructuring afterwards, he ushered the people to higher ground, onto mountains where they survived the deluge. He helped them re-seed afterwards and gave them the gift of weaving cloth which was also known about in Egypt where his son took the technology. This is why people are at a loss on how the technology evolved, it was taken there.

Some on Nibiru thought that Enki's creation could be sacrificed, yet Enki argued for our salvation, it made sense, it ensured that should disaster fall on Nibiru, that there would be descendants left rather on another planet than the whole people be lost.

Enki had a son Thoth, he later went to Egypt, he is an important figure in this story, he established the Pharaoic system and started the Pyramid building. So, what of Atlantis?

This island off the Mediterranean coast below England was Turtle shaped, perhaps where the American Indian Turtle Island comes from? The island was co-habited by the Red people and the Ari-ans. The Red people observed the 'Law of One' as do the American Indian people, the Ari-ans known as the Aryans, embraced technology, which they ended up abusing the free energy derived from crystals, the Pyramids also used crystal technology too, this led to the destruction of Atlantis.

As such, Atlantis, already damaged by volcanic activity, was split into three by the Ari-ans over use of the crystal power source. The split was gradual and Thoth knew that the island would disappear below the sea, so he organised the migration of the Red people. Now, remember that Thoth, son of Enki had been at Sumer and they had Clay tablets?

When Thoth organised the migration, he took the Red people to South America to Yucatan from where they started a move north. In Peru, there is the Pokotia monolith that shows that Sumerians visited that area thousands of years ago, Pokotia dates from 400BC. Thoth was one of the 'Tall Whites' a group that would advise many of the tribes. So how is this possible if they only had primitive boats and no maps? They had more advanced technology than science allows us to believe.

Thoth told the tribes he took to the new land keep on the move, ten tribes in all, if we take the seven main Indian tribes that likely leaves the Innuit type of people as an extra and others in the Canadian region to make up the number.

Lets look at the Sumerian connection evidence. In 1963, a clay tablet dug up in a garden in Georgia was found to be related to the Sumerian goddess Inana. William Niven, an explorer, found in Mexico a set of clay tablets which told the story of the island of Mu, which was around in the time of Atlantis.

The Hotevilla people from the Hopi tribe in Arizona have sacred stone (Clay) tablets which has knowledge recorded on. Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce owned a Clay tablet from Sumeria that was from 2042 BC. His medicine bag also displayed the 8 rayed Nibirian symbol. So, now we are seeing how this improbable Clay tablet connection has been proved. It was there from the start.

We can go back to our Enki the Eagle story. Thoth did refer to himself as Enki, even though he was the son of the original Enki. When Enki and his sister created the Earth human in Sumer, they used the genetic material of the Homo Erectus primate and blended it with their own. They did this because the Homo Erectus was primitive and did not have the language potential, intelligence potential or potential for guidance or learning that we do now.

They essentially created a 'pick and mix' creature engineering in what they needed, this may sound impossible, but they came here from off the planet, they were more advanced than we were up until this last century.

Let us consider if an aeroplane landed in a primitive human world, the primitives would have no idea likely on how to operate it. Yet, if an advanced craft came from another world and landed here, we would be more likely to have the ability to fly it and we have done so.Go back to the story of creation and the statement that humans were 'made in the image of the Creator' then if Enki was that creator, we are that image, albeit in one that ages and does not have the superior intellect of Enki.

Consider that the Aboriginal Australians might consider themselves the only people of their kind, they had not seen ships, aircraft, other people, other colours of people, technology. In this context us humans might say we are the only ones here and travel from outside and off the planet is not possible. They received off planet visitors which they recorded on Petroglyphs as did the Hopi.

Some on on this island Earth think that, they cannot grasp that others may come here from the stars, it is the reason we are here, we did not evolve, we are an intervention species, check out your third chromosomal pair, it is fused, no other creature has that and it can't happen in nature, it was done externally through modification.

I have gone a bit off track here, but let us go back to the American Indian. Once in America, there came a situation where they were offered two choices – to side with the people of the sky or another species of reptillian creatures of the Earth. These were not human.

The Hopi in that area chose the people of the feather – here we get the Enki the Eagle story, this further proves the connection even if it it may seem unbelievable. The Hopi say they travelled to Earth on the back of Enki the Eagle, perhaps they were flown from Atlantis to America, if the Anunnaki could come to Earth, it is possible. The Hopi came from the Blue star and migrated across the water – an alludation to exodus from Atlantis and why they revere the Blue Kachina. Nibiru is sometimes refereed to as the Blue Star.

The feather features heavily in Sumerian stellae reliefs, Egyptian pyramid paintings and statuary and of course with the Red people. Let us look at the Cherokee people, known as the Mound builders, these mounds also feature in Britain. The early religion in Britain was Paganism, a similar Law of One type religion, heavily following nature.

Stonehenge was built by the Atlanteans – it was no accident, it was placed there for a reason, it was a sort of stone computer – wooden poles were placed in dug out holes in the stones to throw light shadows so that the dates for planting crops for example could be observed. The Atlanteans also gave the Mayans their calendar. Stonehenge is in alignment with the Pyramids and on a place of great free energy, Giza was the Pyramid that was at the centre of the old Earth before the pole shift.

Why do the American Indian people tend to be psychically gifted? This was inherited and their closeness to nature, the earth and the Law of one which is a universal law. They are also frequently visited by those from off the planet.

The Hopi maintain contact with a race of Grey extra terrestrials likely from the Pleiades as they co-exist with tall white 'Nordic' type humans. Many of the Chiefs are revered as Prophets, Tecumseh, Crazy Horse who foretold of Automobiles, WW2 and aeroplanes, Black Elk who foresaw 7 generations would pass before the Lakota people become great again.

A book called Star Ancestors is a fascinating read, it along with Encounters with Star People by Ardy Sixkiller Clarke shows how the Red people have maintained the link.

What of Crop circles? These show up in Europe mainly, they are said to be ancient symbology some from Atlantis, many are hundreds of feet across and would be impossible to create at night so accurately. Why would a Hopi / Mayan symbol suddenly turn up in a Farmer's field over night some 300 plus feet across?

We find many of the Indian people telling us about the law of one and their way of life, it is the way forward. So why is it resisted, why is the gift of free energy scorned by those in authority? Simply that it would destroy the commercial world. It would render much of commerce and the consumer society redundant. We are running out of planet, this the Red people know as do some of us, yet we are daily foisted with advertisements for things we don't really need.

I hope this hasn't been to long a piece, it is a simplified version of years of research!

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Atlantis article

I've managed to collate the Atlantis information at last into one block, so I'll have to get the information into order, it is really interesting that so much has cross checked. Will be back soon!

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Whoever wields the most power is most responsible, and mistakes/fatal error were made by all involved in the second battle at Wounded Knee 2, and continued to be ongoing. There were many who pulled the trigger that caused the death of the 2 agents, all inclusive and especially what and who led up to these deaths… all are responsible for these deaths – and should not be the pay back by one individual as the responsible party. It is probably the arguing principal for “collateral damage” kind of thing. There were a number of deaths related to this battle, as well as injury, disappearance,murder as well as a cornucopia of false information, and keeping Peltier in prison or putting him there in the first place doesn’t change this. But it is worse case scenario, by making Leonard the issue instead of recognizing what the core dynamics/truths that manifested this uprising and continued struggle in the first place. It is an american panacea that puts people in prison to pretend that takes care of a “problem”. Leonard Peltier, no matter his personality does not deserve the LIVING DEATH SENTENCE of life in prison, no parole, for this crime committed by many. He does not. It is simply true that Mr. Peltier DID NOT receive a fair trial. His trial helped set a stage for the contemporary demise of our justice system. This continues to contribute to the loss of other personal freedoms because this part of our country’s history IS governments persecution of it’s citizens, which government wants to amend by the imprisonment of one man. The more things stay the same with Manning, Assange, Snowden, Swartz(rip)… or ‘bad guys’ Hussein, Bin Laden,McVeigh, etc…

Peltier was/remains vicim of time and place and much much much more. He was/is on the side of the people and that is who we have to listen to… is the people, not government or media telling us about the people. We have to take the real side of the real people not the governments side right? btw, Peltier has some good company on his side, speaking of people.

Did he do it? Personally, I think not, seems to be a finely designed agenda for a scapegoat that I continue to see replayed today. To me, one persons guilt is not the issue here – there is more. It is way past time to release Mr. Peltier for a healing that this country is in desperate need of, and time for a different way of doing/thinking things.  

~Pilamayaye Myoglasi~

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My boys have been enrolled in Boy Scouts and Cub Scouts for the past few years. Until recently, it has been a good experience for them. They’ve made good friends and learned some valuable life skills.

As I was preparing to send my oldest son to summer camp, I became aware of the OA (Order of the Arrow). The OA is the National Honor Society of the Boy Scouts. The society was founded in 1915 by E. Urner Goodman and Carol A. Edson; it was created to recognize outstanding scouts and reinforce the scout oath and scout law.

One of the adults who is actively involved in our troop described the OA “tapping out” ceremony to me. Imagine my surprise when he said there will be “Indians on canoes”. I asked him which tribe was involved, and he replied that the boys dress up like Indians for the OA ceremony. And so it began… I wrote him a heartfelt letter explaining why cultural appropriation is wrong. I communicated to him that wearing redface isn’t ok. I included a mini history lesson, shared some personal experiences, and touched on US policy dealing with Indigenous people. I even admitted to him that I myself, a multi-racial person, haven’t always been aware of cultural appropriation and its harmful effects. He did not directly address my concerns, but responded by saying there are tough requirements to even be nominated for OA, and scouters take it quite seriously. “It is not something they just do for fun.” He also stated that he believes they “use our Native Americans as role models”. He asked me to check out the OA because he knows the sincerity and quality of the scouts and scouters who participate.

So I did what he asked me to. The Order of the Arrow has been around for 99 years. According to what I read online, Edson and Goodman, the founders of OA, researched the language and traditions of the Lenni Lennape people. They wanted to include “Indian lore” in the OA to make the organization more appealing to the youth. This was during a time when our loved ones and ancestors were being taken from their families, assimilated, and “civilized”. This was during a time when native people were considered less than human.While native children in residential schools had their culture and language beaten from them, the Boy Scouts were using the language and their version of “Indian culture” in their OA ceremony. In fact, it wasn’t until 1978 that the American Indian Religious Freedom act was passed. That means non-Native members of the BSA were conducting their “Indian” ceremonies when Indigenous people in the United States didn’t even have the freedom of religion and culture that other people in the United States enjoyed.


As I searched google images of the OA and watched YouTube videos of the OA ceremonies, I became even more uncomfortable. In fact, I feel the OA ceremony is downright offensive. At the Wahissa lodge OA, they don headdresses, face paint, sit and sing around a big drum, and dance with a pipe. At other OA ceremonies, they mix West Coast native art and plains style headdresses. Ironically, some of these “Indian” ceremonies are held in churches and priests are involved. It appears there is ongoing use of the big drum, hand drum, pipe, “eagle feather”, and headdress within the OA. Use of these items by Boy Scouts indicates that there is very little understanding of the Native people they claim to admire and respect.

I have been told that if we are not using these sacred objects as they are intended, we aren’t walking the walk. Along with carrying and using these items, comes a great deal of responsibility. Not just anyone should have them. I want my children to know the truth that is the Drum, Pipe, and Eagle Feather. I want them to understand that traditional ways are not a costume or boy scout initiation. They are alive, they are sacred. An Elder often reminds me that before we were born, we all had something in common. We listened to the heart beat for nine months. We didn’t know how to speak, think, or see. I believe that drum is the heartbeat that is alive in all of us. I believe it is to be loved and respected.


There is nothing honorable about an honor society appropriating culture. I respectfully ask the Boy Scouts of America to acknowledge that it’s time to stop the cultural appropriation occurring within the organization. It’s time to stop spreading ignorance to our children. Why not modify the Order of the Arrow lodges and ceremonies so they will be conducted in an authentic respectful manner? Why not create some new traditions and ceremonies that are original and belong to solely to you? I know this would require a lot of changes for the OA, but I believe that if you want to teach values, good citizenship, authenticity, and respect, it’s time for awareness and change. There are people within the Native community who would be willing to work with you to foster a sense of understanding, respect, and cultural awareness.  


 Ozheebeegay Ikwe is a Native artist, activist, and mom.


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'Ant Friends' artefact from Illinois cave

In a recent post I talked about the 'Ant People' who helped the Hopi Indians, I recently came across this picture of an artefact found in a cave in Illinois which reflects that story well. So is this genuine?

It could well be, the 6 pointed star design is one pointer (often used on craft wares), the 'Ant' like biped looks to be female in body but with an 'ant like' head, if we bear in mind that the Hopi and similar tribes had little modern reference points to which to describe what they saw or encountered, then 'Ant' was likely the most convenient and appropriate description.

The scarf like garment has an interesting symbol, I have seen similar designs to this recently in some thing I was looking at. The moon and the star details may allude to the being having come from off the planet 'from the stars'

I thought this was a really interesting artefact. There is no date I have for this artefact or how hard the stone was, it may be a fairly soft stone that a hard mineral like Obsidian could etch or work.

See more about these finds at  

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The Atlantis link

Here's a statue under the ocean with a runic design on the shield. This is from an area of ocean where it is believed part of the Atlantis civilisation lived.

I have now done a lot of research on information that has come from various sources and what you will be interested to know is how the fabled Atlantis does link to the American Indian peoples.

And this goes to explain how Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce tribe came to possess a clay tablet from ancient Sumeria, an artefact that had been in his tribe's possession for centuries, likely before it had been thought possible to have travelled to America by sea.

What we will see from the pieces of information is that the tribes are made up of unique people with a heritage that is truly very special.

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Chaco Canyon, which is considered the most alluring of all archeological ruins in North America, and possibly the world. Considering some of the human intrigue that happened here before its abandonment, one might even say the most mysterious.

Location/Geography: In northwestern New Mexico, San Juan and McKinley counties. Closest town: Farmington or Aztec. Area: about 34,000 acres. Chaco Canyon lies entirely within the San Juan Basin and is surrounded by the Chuska Mountains in the west, the San Juan Mountains to the north, and the San Pedro Mountains in the east.

Spotlight (just the facts, ma’am): Chaco Cultural National Historic Park (hereafter, “Chaco Canyon” or “Chaco”) is an engaging and sui generis archeological ruins that has no parallel whatsoever to any other setting. Like a Mecca-shrine in its own right, only without a postulated prophet-oriented purpose, Chaco’s layout is deemed the most significant of all Ancestral Puebloan communities (a culture previously dubbed the “Anasazi,” though this moniker is no longer vogue or appropriate). To some Puebloans, particularly the Hopi Indians, Chaco remains a guarded secret. Solar/lunar alignment of its numerous structures typifies Chaco’s telling cosmological utility to the inhabitants. Hence, the magnitude of its archeoastronomy corollary to the cosmos. Some archeologists and anthropologists (hereafter, “cultural scientists”) equate Chaco Canyon to Arizona’s Casa Malpaís ruins, possibly even Colorado’s Chimney Rock archeological site, and specifically in view of the strong emphasis placed on observing changing seasons. Where these people built this literal shrine of the prehistoric ages, all roads led here. For modern day visitors, once leaving regional main highways the entry points (there are two) are unpaved. Driver are thus cautioned to slow down and ease back into another time frame from long, long ago. . .

After a while the scenery changes, the elevation dips and what's ahead is a more promising view of Chaco Canyon's austere and engaging backdrop:

And if you feel like it, you can give one of these guys a lift. But don't hit 'em, because this is open range country and any livestock you run into (or they into you) means you have to pay the rancher. No kidding. . .

Snapshot (more details): Chaco Canyon is typically desiccated terrain. Its high desert setting denotes an isolated sector away from the more populous Ancestral Puebloan communities that once lived throughout the Four Corners regions, whose numbers may have been well over 100,000 strong just before their great diaspora off the Colorado Plateau in the late 13th Century.

It is believed the numerous and so-called Great Houses built throughout Chaco’s compound were functional temples. Chacoans who came here, and perhaps an exclusive roster of people from select clan members, made annual pilgrimages for ceremonial purposes. From Farmington, New Mexico, on Hwy. 550, then to County Road 7900, travelers came from afar, each bearing a variety of acquired trade goods (as gifts), such as pottery and jewelry. Rimmed by mesas, Chaco is located within lowlands circumscribed by dune fields, ridges and a topography generally defined by a mountainous terrain. The broad layout of Chaco’s periphery generally follows a northwest-to-southwest axis. Home to the most exceptional concentration of archeological ruins in the Southwest, this site was designated a national monument in 1907. In 1980, an additional 13,000 acre allotment was added. The park is set in a secluded high elevation canyon carved by the Chaco Wash. With its assemblage of ancient ruins, Chaco is the foremost cultural and historic attraction of its kind. One glance at the Great Kiva of Chetro Ketl will suggest why many people, professional and laymen alike, consider Chaco the most important of all archeological ruins.

Remarkably, as much as is known about this visually arresting site, what some might dub a altogether mysterious setting and an equally mysterious human history motif, Chaco continues to generate its fair share of speculation. We know only that this assembly of singular structures was used during part of the year by the majority of Chaco’s inhabitants, most likely as a religious hub. Indeed, very little is understood about Chacoan ceremonies. Possibly, Chaco Canyon was similar in ways to other famous pilgrimage sites such as Mount Kailash in Tibet (an active site for the past 15,000 years). Designated a national historic park in 1980. Governing body: National Park Service.

Guided Tour Essentials (a more complete comprehension): Given Chaco Canyon’s geographic aspects, there are immense gaps between the southwestern cliff facades. Specifically, the numerous fingered-side canyons (commonly called rincons). The Chacoans made special use of these places, for they were critical in funneling rain-bearing storms into the canyon-like setting, thereby augmenting water resources. For obscure or clear reasons beyond archeological interest, especially the intrigue of its layout and numerous ruins, Chaco’s milieu may be the most important site of its kind in North America. Apart from the Ancestral Puebloans who came and went here over the centuries, many distant tribal people also visited Chaco, bringing with them offerings such as pottery, exotic birds, and jewels to mention some articles. From 900 to 1130, the Chacoan culture was nothing less than industrious; also, glorified. The inhabitants built multi-storied buildings and planed extensive roads throughout the 49,710 square miles encompassing the San Juan Basin that defines the overall topography of this region. Indeed, perfectly straight roads that originate in Chaco emanate out for many miles to other pueblo or so-called Great House sites. The question remains: Why build roads when these people had no carts, much less animals to pull them? Perhaps the answer lies in some religious significance rather than trade. Perhaps there's another riddle. Still, the network of roads Ancestral Puebloans cleared and fashioned led to this epicenter of culture and people came here by the thousands.

Another question often entertained when visiting this site concerns he original builders and dwellers. Namely, what were they thinking by aligning most of their structures to either solar or lunar light? Why was the alignment so important and so particular given the mathematics of design? Recently, some cultural scientists suggest that several of the large central buildings, especially the most famous, Pueblo Bonito, were used primarily for ceremony (though without saying exactly what kind of religious or spiritual ceremony). It follows how Chaco Canyon’s cultural center in the Southwest likely served as a ceremonial hub for outlying Chacoan communities. Astronomy, specifically the discipline of archeoastronomy, played a pivotal role in Chacoan culture, as realized from astute empirical observations of the heavens taken over many decades. Indeed, there is a special landmark close to their dwellings where trained observers, possibly shamans or the like, had marked the solstices, equinoxes, and solar noon, including so-called standstill positions of the moon revealed on thirteen light markings on petroglyphs (see below for a further explanation).

Incredibly, eleven of the major structures are directly oriented to either the sun and moon. Each major structure also has an internal geometry that corresponds to the relationships of the solar and lunar cycles. More astonishing, most major structures are oriented in a solar-and-lunar alignment. The aforementioned Pueblo Bonito, located at the approximate center of Chaco Canyon, plays the central role in this precise arrangement.

Latter Day Discovers: The ruins of Chaco Canyon were first discovered in 1849 by Lt. James Simpson, a member of the U. S. Army forces newly arrived in the New Mexico territory, also a member of the United States Topographical Engineers. He was assigned to the military governor Colonel John Washington. Washington’s goal was to contact the warring Navajos for the sake of obtaining a peace treaty, but it’s more likely he wanted to impress them with the military superiority of his expedition. Headed for Canyon de Chelly the expedition came across a fascinating landscape of well-preserved ruins (with much of the credit given to the typical aridity of the Colorado Plateau). This was Chaco Canyon and Col. Washington gave Simpson permission to examine the impressive landscape of multistoried ruins. Simpson's guide, Carravahal from the San Juan Pueblo, provided the name Pueblo Bonito, which is Spanish for “beautiful town.”  At the conclusion of his expedition, Simpson published the first description of Chaco Canyon. Later, it was Richard Wetherill, a rancher and archeologist, along with George Pepper from the Museum of Natural History, who became the first to excavate at Pueblo Bonito. They started their excavations in 1896 and ended three years later. When they finished, Wetherill remained at Chaco Canyon running a trading post until he died in 1910. In the short period Wetherill and Pepper excavated, they had uncovered an amazing one hundred and ninety rooms, while photographing and mapping all of the major structures in Chaco Canyon. Wetherill and Pepper contributed immensely to the early excavation of Chaco Canyon. Naturally, precious archeological booty over the years was discovered. In some cases, artifacts were consigned to museums and sometimes sold for profiteering and private collections.

Those pieces that were not usurped by so-called thieves of time provide a window to the past revealing the artistry of the people who made numerous utilitarian and artistic vessels.

Also, considering how clay pottery was introduced to Ancestral Puebloan culture during the so-called Pueblo I Era (750 to 900), the amazing artistry of crafting pottery has grown ever since. Here's an example of a contemporary Puebloan design:                (FYI: Strangely, not too many skeletons were ever found here, leading some cultural scientists to view Chaco as opened to the people only during part of the year. According to one researcher (Craig Childs) 650 remains were found throughout the region, with 131 remains found at Pueblo Bonito (a relatively low number comparable to other archeological sites), all buried in two major tombs. The remains were stacked like firewood. Was Chaco considered another infamous massacre site compared to places like Cowboy Wash or Sand Canyon? Possibly.)

Radiating Roads From The Center: Ancient roads of amazing engineering feats to build them radiated from Chaco’s hub. The North Road among them seemingly vectored off into the distance, whose purpose has long intrigued cultural scientists. Perhaps it was a symbol of migration or direction representing death. From the air, these roads, most of them, are discernible. Still, the North Road and its purpose holds the interest of many cultural scientists. It is the only main road leading to and from Chaco, which is also part of a braid of thoroughfares inscribed in the desert scrub landscape, thus requiring more labor than building the dwellings at Chaco. Regardless what was in the way, the road builders of Chaco changed topographical features by continuing straight ahead, including building massive and impressive ramps or carving stairs up to summits of landmark features, then back down the other side. More than 100 miles of roads have thus far been documented throughout the region, with nearly 300 miles of partial roads still visible in some sectors. Some believe the roads actually extended much farther, say, over a thousand miles, heading this or that way, and always in a straight line. Still, it was the North Road considered to be the most complicated and longest, which stretched more than 50 miles from Pueblo Alto (which is one of the many Great Houses) to the San Juan River.

The Unknown Factors Of Chaco’s Network Of Roads: Cultural scientists have long pondered and debated Chaco Canyon’s vast network of roads. For instance, was there a special ceremonial endorsement associated with the North Road or any other similar pathway leading to or from Chaco? Was there a direct connection from one settlement to the other, depending on which road was followed? Averaging 30 to 40 feet wide, what was the purpose for such width? Were some or all of the roads intended as trading routes? Perhaps some were even used for moving goods? In one sector of the North Road, there are four or six other regional roads running abreast––why? Was it more than a utilitarian road plan for the Chacoan people? Perhaps something symbolic? To address the previous thought about Chaco’s straight road designs, according to some theories these people needed to be seen from great places. Winding roads would have therefore meant being more invisible in a mostly flat and unbroken terrain such as this region affords. Seeing farther also highlights a certain psychological advance, suggesting a sense of security. By constructing locales that afforded a greater perspective of the distances, people go more easily travel from place to place without getting lost. Indeed, the precise linking factor of sites for navigating was possible, regardless any landmark blocking the way. Thus a pragmatic and georitual landscape was created.

The North Road overview (the longer outline):

Presented with the unique layout of Chaco’s roads radiating from the center it likely was a way of inscribing the Ancestral Puebloan minds onto the landscape itself. The way these people planned their settlements and built their monuments that lined up in a precise way does indeed mesh with the topographical features throughout this overall setting. For instance, consider another Great House of Chaco, Casa Rinconada. Lines radiating from this dwelling pass directly through a number of other Great Houses, including penetrating through the centers of some of the larger kivas, thereby connecting to significant landmarks in the great distance. This design is not merely coincidental. Flawless symmetrical angles and intersections were computed (added together) to the finest detail. Surveyors, as well as priests, were part of the planning; they designed the roads and structures, most likely assisted by arco astronomers who formulated a map of the cosmos overhead. Combined, these specialists in the community created the initial outline and floor plan that enabled people to accurately move along preexisting terrestrial lanes of travel. Such travel could be accomplished during time of drought, and probably without causing territorial disputes with other tribal people. These roads were thus used as convenient maps for people to follow in times of need as well as for pilgrimage.

One other notable aspect of the people utilizing the terrain, especially higher places, was for signaling. One settlement could easily stay in touch with a more distant settlement, especially to warn others of imminent danger. This was a way to let other Ancestral Puebloan communities know they were not alone. Settlements flickering to life as fires burned in the night compensated for both darkness and the distance. Most of the sites were located on average 20 to 30 miles apart. The sites were therefore a convenient network for conveying information, linking one settlement with the next in line. Even during the day it was possible to send signals that could easily be seen. This means was accomplished by knapping obsidian (volcanic glass) that flashed in the sun. Perhaps pyrite mirrors (a/k/a “fool’s gold”) were also used.

Given such broad dimensions of nocturnal open space. . .

Ancestral Puebloan sentinels were able to connect with outlying communities by doing this. . .


The Real Significance Of Chaco Canyon––Its Deign: The noteworthy aspect of Chaco's design is twofold. First, the elaborate architecture that has withstood the test of time for many centuries. Every slab of rock has been quarried and assembled, as though these builders were read from a master architect's blueprints such as is common today. Yet these people had no blueprints; they had no writing; no numbers. They had only pictographs for images left behind for others to see. But someone guided these people to build their dwellings with such preciseness and perfect solar or lunar alignment. There was indeed purpose in everything these people did.     

Principles Of Archaeoastronomy: The other important aspect of Chaco's dwellings refers to the precise alignment of most of its structures. The alignment also directly relates to archaeoastronomy. Such scientific knowledge required generations of astronomical observations to skillfully and meticulously coordinate each building's construction so that it aligned with the cosmos. But where did the mathematics originate that made this possible? Some cultural scientists surmise the high degree of mathematics came from the Mayan civilization. And there are some diehard X filers who hold out for extraterrestrial schooling. But the Ancestral Puebloans were an intelligent and innovative culture that likely tapped into what humankind has always tapped into for creative genius: something abstruse from within.

Other than the flawless design of Chaco's solar and lunar-aligned dwellings, all of which is predicated on archaeoastronomy, further evidence for this empirically-based science is the famous Sun Dagger petroglyph at Fajada Butte, a prominent site rising above the canyon floor (see below). The main complexes at Chaco are Pueblo Bonito, Neuvo Alto and Kin Kletso, all of which played a vital role in Chacoan belief systems. Visitors and scholars alike agree that Chaco represents the most interesting of all archeological ruins in the Southwest. Some might even suggest the most interesting site on the planet. Certainly, the abundance of curious and functional rock art keeps one speculating about the reason this unparalleled site was built, then later abandoned. In the wake of their departure, some of the structures that were partially destroyed by the very people who built and designed this ostensible religious center in a typically dry and sandy location here in northwest New Mexico.

Chaco Canyon is probably the best example of any archaeoastronomy site on the planet. Its science involves archeological aspects, as well as stellar observations. Apart from Chaco Canyon, Colorado’s Chimney Rock, and Arizona’s Petrified National Forest are some of the more notable archeological sites where such incisive observations took place.

Today's means of star gazing:

While for Ancestral Puebloans their predictive means was by way of the naked eye:

Specifically, tracking a precise sun ray on a precise glyph:

While achieving this verification without guessing:

In the archives of archeology, archaeoastronomy is a fairly recent contributor to a science-based disciplined by means of precise observations, both solar and lunar. Originating as pagan holidays in some parts of the world, archeoastronomy survives in modern times as neopagan holidays. Those who study archeoastronomy consider all its aspects worthy and telling in both a predictive and historical sense. Relative to the above mentioned sites (among some few notable others), what we have learned about the Ancestral Puebloans thought processes has contributed invaluable cultural information, particularly in their calculating annual solstice and equinox events. These observations include intervals of cross quarters (a cross-quarter day falls approximately halfway between a solstice and an equinox).                       

That famous glyph and dagger also was ensconced in this world famous Chaco landmark, called Fajada Butte"

Archaeoastronomy draws on several scientific disciplines for its knowledge banks. Primarily, disciplines related to astronomy, archaeology, anthropology, psychology and epigraphy (the decoding of ancient inscriptions). As for astrology, this, too, was important in adding to the storehouse of archeoastronomy’s knowledge. Its discipline, although not scientifically-based compared to astronomy, was nonetheless integral to humankind centuries ago. That’s because myth was as dominant in ancient times as mass media is today. For many people, astrology continues to hold fascination because the planets, sun and moon have always held sway with some people’s minds and imaginations. To be sure, its many facets of study and interpretations poses a wide appeal to cultures, race, even religion. However, the subject of archeoastronomy treated in this theme supplement will focus solely on this discipline, while also admitting astrology somehow, and in some way, managed to interphase with its science. Chaco Canyon’s significance is also touted in the following exposition.

Prehistoric Human History: Somewhere between 900 and 1150, Chaco was a major focal point of culture for the Ancestral Puebloans. They came here for a specific reason. Most likely, a ceremonial center. The layout of the dwellings certainly attests to a special relationship of the temporal with the eternal, namely an interest in the cosmos by predictive means (the solstices and equinoxes). The innate purpose for a massive complex distant from populated hubs, such as today’s Canyons of the Ancients (near Cortez, Colorado) or Mesa Verde, was to establish an archeoastronomy nucleus that was compatible with Chacoan religious beliefs. It's also assumed that the Mesoamerican Mayan and/or Aztec culture had influence on the Chacoans; certainly the similarities of construction and the advanced mathematics to conceive such building plans has ties with (especially) the Mayans. Perhaps such influence also stems from the urbanism of both the Mayans or Aztecs, particularly favoring a precision for predicting equinox and solstice events. It is assumed by many cultural scientists, even most Puebloans, how there's a likely crossover of religious beliefs and attitudes that may have struck a cord with the Chacoans. Without doubt, the Mayan polity, as a small hierarchical state, may have suggested a model similar to that of the Chacoans. Apart from such persuasive cultural modeling, the Chacoans did not merely imitate and build obvious pyramidal structures as the Mayans were especially noted for. Instead, they quarried sandstone blocks and hauled, or most likely rolled, these heavy stones in place and built the great structures of this epic cultural axis point. They also harvested timber from afar, assembling fifteen major complexes in Chaco Canyon, all similar to building designs of most other structures from this era. These utter and intriguing masterpieces of architecture would also become the largest building structures in North America until the 19th Century.

An Ancestral Puebloan Four Corners migration pattern:

Innovated Building Design: Although there is no archeological evidence that clan systems ever existed during the Ancestral Puebloan’s occupation of the Four Corners region, cultural scientists have discerned enough from Chaco and its construction to lead some to believe clans were in fact assembled here. Principally, these would be the Scarlet (or "Parrot") and Kachina clans that are preserved today in the Hopi society. Whoever were the major overseers of Chaco's development, clans or otherwise, they used innovative masonry techniques for the construction of the multiple-story pueblos and Great Houses. Pueblo Bonito, the largest of these stupendous Great House structures, had over six hundred rooms and forty kivas, typifying Chaco's significance as a major ceremonial center. Building pueblo structures, especially the Great Houses, took many decades of coordinated effort to complete. Indeed, the design demonstrates a deeper understanding of the natural cycles of the Earth and its relationship to the cosmos. Many other examples of astronomical knowledge have been found in Chaco Canyon. But its layout of perfectly aligned structures is really the clue why these castles in the desert were built.

Consider, also the back wall of Pueblo Bonito is aligned on a perfect east-west axis. The precise alignment means on the Summer Solstice(June 21 or June 22), the sun passes directly over this wall.

Near the summit of Fajada Butte a crack in the rock wall is aligned with a spiral petroglyph, so that sunlight shining through the narrow opening of the this chink is perfectly centered during the moment of the solstice. Sunlight penetrating a window in nearby Pueblo Bonito also perfectly aligns with an inside corner of the building, but only during the Winter Solstice. Additionally, several petroglyphs have been found depicting astronomical events, such as the great supernova of 1054 (see below for more clarification). It’s amazing to think someone first had to notice the clockworks of the universe, as viewed from Fajada Butte, then upon computing the evidence by keen observation over the decades, build Pueblo Bonito in such a way to confirm the great celestial event, if a confirmation. It also boggles the mind the inspiration and ingenuity behind this affair.

Although Chacoan culture flourished for some four hundred years, and possibly a great deal longer, the Ancestral Puebloans left the region toward the end of the 13th Century (around 1251 and possibly as late as 1287). Several causes may have contributed to this mass emigration (a diaspora by any other name). However, the reasons why these people abandoned this thoroughly distinctive settlement remains one of the great mysteries of archeology. The same applies for why the Ancestral Puebloans departed from their homeland after having successful sustained their existence here for well over one thousand years. Nevertheless, evidence of an extended drought suggests a reasonable cause that initiated a restive cultural mindset, by which all else followed.

Thus a tradeoff for this typical Chaco desert terrain scene (then and now):

For a new country, like this (New Mexico's Rio Grande Valley):

There is also a matching theory that the Chacoans left elsewhere for a wetter climate, which is largely accepted by cultural scientists. Another theory, however, has something to do with religion but does not adequately explain what those religious concerns were. There may even have occurred a simmering social disorder or disagreement among the people (or various clans in the Ancestral Puebloan community) that finally broke out. Perhaps, too, an infectious and fatal disease had spread, including poor nutrition and iron deficiency causing anemia. Certainly, in view of some human remains of mostly women and children found at some of the ruins, a malady of some kind may have triggered a hasty departure. Cannibalism is thus sometimes suggested, though this often contentious subject (as Puebloans see the matter) is seldom mentioned by most cultural scientists, especially the park service that oversee many archeological sites throughout the Southwest.

(FYI: Even after Chaco was fully abandoned by the 13th Century there was a later revival of sorts, for people came here to repair some of the dwellings (Pueblo Bonito for one example). Then these people moved on again. Not until the 19th Century does activity resume again, which happened when Chaco was rediscovered, first by the Navajos, or perhaps initially it was the Hopis, then later archeologists.)

If you plan to visit here, and if you happen to see what appears like freebie artifacts on the ground. . .

It's bad form and bad juju to pocket any archeological artifact, even seeming throwaway stuff from the past. If you do get tempted to swipe something, keep in mind a shaman might be watching and turn you into something wholly other. . . .

Or worse. . . .

Cultural scientists have debated the matter from a variety of perspectives, and there is some consensus about Chaco's fundamental purpose in Ancestral Puebloan society. Still, there remains seeming impenetrable answers in view of Chaco Canyon's occult-like reputation. If, as some people claim, the Hopis have the answers, then it's also a given such knowledge is held in secret. Thus something to do with the clandestine affairs of certain Hopi clans that may have once served as Chaco's high priests (or similar functionaries) here at Chaco. Of course, saying this merely adds to the stealth and conundrums that have withstood prying questions over the centuries and hardly any forthcoming answers.  

Geology: Geology, as I have always noted, dictates a region’s natural history, that is, if the materials of the landscape are conducive to a flourishing natural history. It follows if this is the case, then human history can be established, even where water resources are sparing and the climate is typically arid. This description especially matches Chaco Canyon’s geography.

However, there is a wash (actually, an "arroyo" in proper Southwestern terms), fittingly named the Chaco Wash.

Its conduit flows across the upper strata of the 400 foot Chacra Mesa.

Over a course of millions of years water has cut into the terrain and gouged out a broad canyon topography. The mesa is made from sandstone and shale formations dating from the Late Cretaceous Period (99 to 66 million years ago), and known as the Mesa Verde Formation. Chaco's bottomlands were further eroded, which eventually exposed a bedrock of shale subsequently buried under some 125 feet  of sediment. Both the canyon and mesa are within the so-called Chaco Core, which is different from the ranging Chaco Plateau geography (itself a fairly uniform region of mostly grassland with sporadic stands of juniper and piñon pine). East of Chaco Canyon is the Continental Divide (15.5 miles), whose geological characteristics and contrasting patterns of drainage distinguish two separate regions, including the neighboring Chaco Slope (the northwestern portion of New Mexico), the Chuska Valley (close to Chaco and Chacra Mesa), and the Gobernador Slope (lies south of the San Juan Slope and drains into the San Juan River).

Because Chaco's alluvial canyon floor slopes, Pueblo Bonito, like Kin Kletso and Neuvo Alto, has elevations ranging from 6,200 to 6,440 feet. Chaco's terrain is thus noticeably bent downward to the northeast and bisected by the Chaco Wash, which is mostly dry throughout the year. There are, however, canyon aquifers, the largest located at a depth beyond the means of the original builders and inhabitants of this setting to draw its precious groundwater. Only smaller and shallower sources supported the minimal variety of springs in the region. Perennial water was therefore not an obtainable resource for the otherwise rustic and dry setting these people selected for their great complex and religious retreat. Perhaps the aridity accounts for the seasonable use of Chaco, while summer monsoonal rains were a blessing to the parched landscape. Likely, from spring-to-fall, Chaco Canyon would have realized its greatest population.

Climate At Chaco: Climate plays a major role in the American Southwest. One can also say here the sun rules with a fusion fist, as it were, on the fact precipitation is often miserly. Chaco's typical landscape is a high xeric scrubland and desert steppe (a biome, meaning a community, characterized by a mere 8 inches of rainfall annually, albeit centuries ago the amount of precipitation was more substantial. The park itself averages 9.1 inches. The low precipitation has to do with the fact Chaco Canyon sits on the leeward side of extensive mountain ranges to the south and west; indeed, affected by a rain shadow that sits in the lee of rainfall for neighboring regions. Chaco also endures striking climatic extremes, where temperatures range between -38 and 102 deg. F (-39 and 39 deg. C). Temperatures may also swing 60 deg. F (33 deg. C) in just one day! The region averages fewer than one hundred-fifty frost-free days per year, where the local climate swings wildly from years of plentiful rainfall to years of prolonged drought. The question naturally arises, “Why, then, did these people choose to build and live here?” There is uncertainty about this, though it’s thought by some cultural scientists the reason has to do with the geography of the setting, and that setting has something to do with the special archeoastronomy significance Chaco is famous for. Thus something both temporal and religious.

Flora And Fauna: Life forms of Chaco Canyon are typical of the high and sandy desert. For example, sagebrush, cactus, and a drought-resistant pygmy forest consisting of piñon pine and juniper trees. The most notable species of mammals include coyotes, mule deer, elk (at times) and pronghorn (antelope), along with bobcats, badgers, foxes and skunk. Rodents and prairie dogs are ubiquitous, as are avian species such as hawks, vultures and ravens. Snakes of many kinds, as well as lizards, also live here in abundance.

Archeoastronomy And Fajada Butte: The basis of this discipline is mentioned in this diary due to the archaeoastronomy significance of Chaco. To further address the question stated earlier, Fajada Butte's significant relationship with this science is likely the sole reason why this Ancestral Puebloan layout was originally created. In this broken mesa country, the elevated landmark rises nearly 443 feet above the canyon floor. It's also one of the more prominent features for miles around. Analysis of pottery shards found here show that these structures were used between the 900s and 1200s. What's so special about this butte is what the famous sun dagger petroglyph reveals: the position of the sun on specific and key days throughout the year. Remains of the ramp leading to the petroglyph are still evident on the southwestern face. The magnitude of the ramp-building project, although not relating to an obvious utilitarian purpose, indicates the considerable ceremonial importance this prominent and squared landmark had for its star-minded observers. The sun dagger site is also the most famous feature of Chaco relevant to archeoastronomy and the cosmological significance of why these people chose to build their complex in such an isolated setting.

The hallmark of this celebrated glyph is located at a southeastern-facing precipice near the top of the butte. There, three relatively large stone slabs lean against the cliff, channeling light and shadow markings onto two spiral petroglyphs inscribed on the wall. At about 11:15 a.m. on the Summer Solstice (between June 20 and 23), a dagger-shaped light image pierces the larger of the two spirals. Similar sun daggers mark the Winter Solstice and both equinoxes. At one extreme in the moon's 18-to-19-year cycle, called the lunar minor standstill, a shadow bisects the larger spiral. This event happens just as the moon rises, while at the other extreme, and precisely 9.5 years later, the lunar major standstill is highlighted, wherein the shadow of the rising moon falls on the left edge of the larger spiral. In each case, these shadows align with precision grooves that are part of the spiral design. At two other sites on Fajada Butte, and located a short distance below the sun dagger site, five other petroglyphs are also marked by visually compelling patterns of shadow and light, indicating solar noon, and distinctively occurring during the solstices and equinoxes. It’s apparent these star gazers had acquired an amazing knowledge, possibly even long before the architects arrived and built the Chaco complex. It also takes countless generations of keen-minded observers to track the cosmos and figure out what the changing light and shadows on select days indicates. The knowledge to predict such science is nothing less than extraordinary. Indeed, the meticulous instruments, in this case the stone slabs and their alignments with the petroglyphs, are in themselves amazing products of human ingenuity.

For these people this is where they first searched to balance their lives in temporality:

Bonus Details: Access to Fajada Butte in the 1980s was closed due to the delicate nature of the site, but also following damage and erosion caused by tourism. Fortunately, my first time visiting Chaco, in the early 1970s, provided an opportunity for me to see the sun dagger site. Who could have predicted such a misfortunate and minor earthquake event that damaged this valuable glyph?

Nevertheless, the site has historically proved invaluable, as well as just about everything else Chaco Canyon offers. For instance, scholarly studies by the Solstice Project indicate that the major buildings of the ancient Chacoan culture of New Mexico also entails solar and lunar cosmology in three separate articulations: the orientation of Chaco’s structures, internal geometry, and geographic interrelationships that were developed in relationship to the cycles of the sun and moon. From this evidence it’s apparent Chaco’s inhabitants directed their lives, at least their religious ideals, using such knowledge. Otherwise, we have only the modern day Puebloans (the cultural successors of the Ancestral Puebloans), particularly the Hopis, to suggest what religious significance the cosmos had for their ancestors. On the other hand, Hopis are reticent about betraying too much of their culture's spiritual or religious insight. This general rule equally applies to most of the other Puebloan tribes (number twenty-one sovereign nations).

Principle Ruins: The Chacoans built their site along a 9-mile-stretch of hard-packed canyon floor, with the walls of some structures aligned cardinally, while others align with the 18.6-year-cycle relative to minimum and maximum moonrise and moonset. At the base of massive sandstone mesas, nine Great Houses are positioned along the north side of Chaco Wash. Other similar structures of prominent importance and design are found on mesa tops or in nearby washes and drainage areas. Altogether, there are fourteen recognized Great Houses. These, the more important structures of Chaco, are grouped below according to geographic positioning within the canyon. Chaco's smaller kivas numbered around one hundred, each hosting rituals for fifty to one hundred worshipers; the fifteen much larger Great Kivas each hosted up to four hundred people. Kivas, incidentally, were only open to males, while females had their own special ceremonies in other dwellings throughout the Chaco complex. (Today’s Puebloans also deem certain activities for either males or females.)

The central portion of Chaco Canyon contains the largest dwellings. The most studied is Pueblo Bonito (meaning "beautiful village"). This site covers almost two acres. It's plainly the largest Great House in the complex, as well as in the region. Built like a gigantic beehive, and possibly replicated from such, its single, half-moon-shaped design is larger than most contemporary skyscrapers. The builders use of core-and-veneer architecture and multistory construction entailed massive masonry walls up to 3 feet thick. This major pueblo is divided into two main sections by a wall precisely aligned to run north-south, bisecting the central plaza. A Great Kiva was placed on either side of the wall, creating a symmetrical pattern common to many Chacoan Great Houses. Originally, Pueblo Bonito was four stories high and contained over seven hundred rooms, possibly as many as eight hundred. It also contained an amazing thirty-six kivas. In its longest dimension, the structure measures 492 feet. It was one of the two largest structures in the Chacoan cultural region. Notably, its semicircular shape is unique among Chacoan buildings. Some cultural scientists think the scale of this complex upon completion rivaled that of Rome's Colosseum.

Pueblo Bonito's Colosseum from high above:

Nearby is Pueblo del Arroyo (Spanish for" town of the gully," while to the Navajo it means "home beside water's edge"). The pueblo was planned and constructed in two short stages from about 1026 to 1126 and sits at a drainage outlet known as South Gap. Its most unique feature, the tri-wall (which has a single tree-ring date of 1109), suggests a connection with the northern populations of the Animas region. As with other tri-wall structures, its function is uncertain.

Almost directly across from Pueblo Bonito, Casa Rinconada is a great subterranean kiva that sits to the south side of Chaco Wash. Its structure is also next to a Chacoan road leading to a set of steep stairs extending to the top of Chacra Mesa. With its numerous T-shaped windows and doorways, Casa Rinconada is constructed like a massive stone compass. These openings are like eyelets intended for alignment during seasonal changes. (Indeed, Chaco’s Great Houses appear to have been specifically designed to function as architectural calendars marking these four major seasonal events. Such precision to the finest details demonstrates how the sun or moon casts light into and through certain rooms by way of the windows and doorways. Some of the dwellings are also oriented toward the 18.6-year lunar standstill cycle, while others are aligned toward the spring and fall equinoxes.) Casa Rinconada’s sole kiva stands alone with no residential or support structures whatsoever. At one time it had a 39-foot (12 m) passageway leading from the underground kiva to several above-ground levels.

Lunar standstill between Colorado's "Chimney Rocks" archeological site:

Chetro Ketl, also located near Pueblo Bonito, is another famous Chacoan structure that bears the typical D-shape of many other central complexes, but is slightly smaller. Begun between 1021 and 1051, its 450 to as many as 500 rooms shared one Great Kiva. Experts estimate that it took nearly thirty thousand man-hours to erect this structure. (The derivative of this name might mean rain pueblo, or else it's the Navajo translation of corner house.) Some industrious archeologist also estimated that its construction took five thousand trees and fifty million stone blocks.


Kin Kletso ("Yellow House") was a medium-sized complex located 0.5 miles west of Pueblo Bonito. It shows strong evidence of construction and occupation by inhabitants from the northern San Juan Basin. Its rectangular shape and design are related to the Pueblo II Era cultural group, rather than the Pueblo III style or its Chacoan variant. It contained around 55 rooms, four ground-floor kivas, and a two-story cylindrical tower that may have functioned as a religious center. Evidence of an obsidian-processing industry was discovered near the village, which was erected between 1126 and 1131.

Pueblo Alto, another Great House with 89 rooms, is located on a mesa top near the middle of Chaco Canyon, 0.6 miles from Pueblo Bonito. Its structure was begun between 1021 and 1051 during a wider building boom throughout the canyon. The location of Pueblo Alto made the community visible to most of the inhabitants of the San Juan Basin; indeed, it was only 2.3 miles north of Tsin Kletsin, on the opposite side of the canyon. The residing community lived at the center of a bead-and turquoise-processing industry that influenced the development of all the villages in the canyon. Chert (a silica-rich micro fibrous sedimentary rock) tool production was also common. This particular site suggests that only a handful of families, perhaps as few as five to twenty, lived in the complex. This small number may imply this pueblo served a primarily nonresidential role.

Yet another Great House, Nuevo Alto, was built on the north mesa near Pueblo Alto, founded in the late 1100s during a time when the Chacoan population was declining.

Outliers––The Other Sector Of Chaco's Singular Layout: In Chaco Canyon's northern reaches, there lies another cluster of Great Houses. Among the largest are Casa Chiquita (meaning small house), a village built in the 1080s when Chacoan culture was expanding and during a period of ample rainfall. This pueblo's layout features a smaller, squarer profile; it also lacks the open plazas and separate kivas of its predecessors. Larger, squarer blocks of stone were used in the masonry, and kivas were designed in the northern Mesa Verde tradition. Located 2 miles down the canyon is Penasco Blanco (meaning white bluff). This arc-shaped compound was built on top of the canyon's southern rim in five distinct stages between 901and 1121. A cliff painting (the "Supernova Platograph") nearby may record the sighting of the epic supernova of 1054.

It was said the supernova's light was so bright it was possible to read by it (that is, for those who had reading material):

More Bonus Details: On July 4, 1054, Chinese astronomers were the first to note a guest star in the constellation Taurus. This engaging and mysterious light in the night's sky was about four times brighter than Venus during its brightest light, and was even visible in daylight for twenty-three days. The Chacoans were compelled to record it, as did other North American tribes. Europeans, however, ignored it because it was dubbed heresy by the Catholic Church to consider any star brighter or more important than our own sun. But the Ancestral Puebloans were an astute people and recorded this stupendous event now preserved as a famous Chaco glyph:

Directions: From the north, turn on US 550 at County Road (hereafter, CR) 7900 3 miles (4.8 km) southeast of Nageezi and about 50 miles (80 km) west of Cuba (at mile 112.5). The route from 550 to the park boundary is 21 miles (33 km) and includes 8 miles (12.8 km) of paved road (CR 7900) and 13 miles (21 km) of rough dirt road (CR 7950). From the south, there are two routes to Chaco from Hwy. 9 (between Crownpoint, Pueblo Pintado and Cuba). Both routes vary from very rough-to-impassable and are not recommended for low clearance vehicles or RVs. If traveling from Hwy. 57 (which is listed Hwy. 14 on some older maps), this turnoff is located on Hwy. 9 and is 13 miles (21 km) east of Hwy. 371 (at the former Seven Lakes Trading Post this includes 20 miles/32 km). If traveling from Pueblo Pintado, turn north on Navajo 46 for 10 miles (16 km). After this rough dirt stretch, turn left on CR 7900 for 7 miles (11 km), then left on CR 7950. From there follow the signs 16 miles (26 km) to the park entrance).

Caution: Both the northern and southern routes include, respectively, 13, 20, and 33 miles of unpaved roads (21, 32 and 53 km). Although these sections of road are infrequently maintained, they are sometimes impassable during inclement weather. For current road conditions call the park: 505-786.7014

Watch for these signs––both approaching and spent storms over Chaco:

Contact Information: Chaco Culture National Historical Park, P. O. Box 220, Nageezi NM 87037. Phone (Visitor Center): 505-786-7014. Fax 786-7061. Email embedded in NPS site’s URL (click on “Email Us”)


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